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Tibetischer Buddhismus
und verwandte Themen


è Buddhist Revival - A Kham Aid Foundation Report   by Pamela Logan
è Buddhist Revival - Omniscience comes in handy for Tibetans in faithless state    by  Seth Faison
è Reiner Buddhismus und authentische Übermittlung   von Orgyen Tobgyal Rinpoche
è Vom kleinen zum diamantenen Fahrzeug  von Andreas Gruschke
è HELP: Glossary for Mahayana and Tibetan Buddhism  compiled by Geoffrey Samuel

 
 
 
 

Reiner Buddhismus und authentische Übermittlung

Orgyen Tobgyal Rinpoche

Das System, das unser Lehrer, der Buddha, lehrte, verlangt von seinen Anhängern keinen blinden Glauben: Tatsächlich werden wir sogar ständig aufgefordert, die Lehren aufs Sorgfältigste zu überprüfen. Der Buddha präsentierte seine Lehre auf eine Weise, daß jeder um so mehr Nutzen, Wert und Gründe für die Praxis findet, je genauer und eingehender er den Dharma untersucht und prüft - gleichgültig ob diese Erforschung mit der gewöhnlichen Betrachtungsweise eines unerleuchteten Wesens oder dem allwissenden Gewahrsein eines erleuchteten Wesens durchgeführt wird. Der Buddha selbst wies auf diese Tatsache hin. 
Wenn wir die Lehren des Buddha studieren, ist  ... èèè Fortsetzung hier klicken
 


 

Vom kleinen zum diamantenen Fahrzeug

© Andreas Gruschke, Schillinger Verlag, Freiburg

Unterschiede und Gemeinsamkeiten in den buddhistischen Lehrsystemen von Hinayana, Mahayana und Vajrayana (tibetischem Buddhismus)

Die buddhistischen Lehren gehen zurück auf den Prinzen Gautama Siddharta, den „Erleuchteten" (Buddha) aus dem Fürstengeschlecht der Shakya, der im 6.-5. Jahrhundert v. Chr. wirkte. Ziel seiner Anhänger ist ... weiter è è è click here.
 

BUDDHIST REVIVAL 
Omniscience comes in handy for Tibetans in faithless state

New York Times, July 28th, 1999 and in Sydney Morning Herald, on: 31/07/99 
By Seth Faison

SERTHAR, China -- Nearly every day, Tibetan monks and nuns wearing blood-red robes arrive at this distant outpost after a long trek through a forbidding range of mountains. 
Drawn by word that a brilliant teacher resides here, they climb a twisting path up a narrow valley to find a freshly built metropolis of Buddhist worship. It is a stunning sight in an otherwise barren setting and a potent symbol of the revival in Tibetan Buddhism under way here.
A vast assembly of log cabins, spartan inside and out, covers a pair of steep hillsides. At dusk, crowds of monks and nuns buzz in conversation, their hair shorn and their gazes serene, as they gather for evening prayers outside a ramshackle collection of meeting halls that are connected by a criss-cross of muddy pathways. 
In just a few years, Serthar has emerged to become one of the largest and most influential centers for the study of Tibetan Buddhism in the world. Despite its extremely remote location in an ethnic Tibetan region of Sichuan Province, more than 500 miles by dirt road from the nearest city, Serthar has attracted nearly 8,000 monks and nuns who now live and study here. 
Like countless sects of qigong, traditional meditative and physical exercises that have enjoyed popularity among Chinese who believe they can enhance vital energies, Tibetan Buddhism seems to be filling a spiritual void in the hearts of many adherents. (A new variant of qigong, Falun Gong, which has attracted a wide following, was banned on July 22 in a high-profile crackdown.) 
Serthar is now the brightest star among a number of Tibetan Buddhist temples that are being built or rebuilt with private donations from Tibetans and reluctantly accepted by Chinese authorities. Economic growth has fattened the pockets of some Tibetans in recent years, and their generosity is funding a gradual replacement of the thousands of temples that were demolished by marauding Chinese leftists during the 1960s and 1970s. 
Tibetans still bristle at the myriad restrictions by Chinese authorities on religious worship, both in Tibet proper and in the Tibetan-populated regions in adjoining provinces like this one. 
But at the same time that Chinese officials take steps to tighten control over large monasteries that are wellsprings of political dissent, Serthar is an example of how difficult it is for Chinese authorities to fully control places of worship where popular support is surging among the ordinary faithful. 
At Serthar, set up as an institute for Buddhist study instead of as a monastery, the principal magnet is a master teacher, Khenpo Jikphun, known by followers as a "living buddha," and believed to be the reincarnation of a holy figure. 
Khenpo Jikphun, 66, set up the religious center here in 1980 in an entirely uninhabited valley. It began in a haphazard way, with a handful of disciples gathering around the modest home he lived in. Spreading word slowly attracted more followers, and in recent years, attendance has surged so fast that there is now a desperate shortage of living quarters. 
Monks and nuns here say they were drawn by their teacher's reputation as a deeply insightful scholar who is devoted to reviving a rigorous study of Tibetan Buddhism that was devastated when monasteries were closed and monks defrocked in political campaigns directed by Chinese authorities. 
"We know our teacher is a great man," said Sonam, a 23-year-old nun, who arrived 18 months ago and who, like many Tibetans, uses only one name. "He has attained a higher level of knowledge than anyone in the nation, and what he cares most about is teaching." 
One of the most surprising elements of Serthar is that more than half of those who come to study are women. Entry is limited at the relatively small nunneries that exist in areas populated by Tibetans, but Serthar is open to virtually anyone who is a genuine student of Khenpo Jikphun's brand of Buddhism. 
Another surprise at Serthar is that it attracts ethnic Chinese students as well as Tibetans. Of the nearly 8,000 students here, roughly 800 are ethnic Chinese, who attend separate classes taught in Mandarin, while larger classes are taught in Tibetan. 
It costs nothing to study here, yet monks and nuns have to find their own housing. Wooden cabins are going up all over the place, but not fast enough to handle all the new arrivals. 
Nearly everyone at Serthar seems to credit Khenpo Jikphun's ingenuity with the spectacular growth here. Khenpo Jikphun maintains good ties with both Beijing and with the Dalai Lama, in part by discouraging political discussion and encouraging students to focus on Buddhist study alone. 
"Khenpo's revival of the devastated Tibetan Buddhist systems of educational training has been nothing short of remarkable," wrote David Germano, a Tibet scholar at the University of Virginia, in a recent essay about Serthar in which he argues that stressing ethics over political activism is a powerful model for survival in today's environment. 
On top of the intellectual and religious vigor Khenpo Jikphun brought to Serthar is his mythic, and charismatic presence. Followers believe he is omniscient and say he was born with the ability to speak and recite scripture. He even emerged from his mother's womb, they say, with the placenta wrapped over his shoulder like a monastic robe. 
Khenpo Jikphun claims to be the reincarnation of a holy figure who taught the previous Dalai Lama, and who died early this century. Khenpo Jikphun's followers believe it gives him a special relationship with the current Dalai Lama, whom he visited in India in 1990. 
Eager to keep up good relations with Chinese authorities, Khenpo Jikphun participates in an advisory committee in the local government. He often travels and even visited the United States in 1993. 
Khenpo Jikphun is extremely popular in the region. Beyond religious devotees, many ordinary residents in the area display his photograph next to the Dalai Lama's in stores, homes and even in the cabs of the hefty cargo trucks that traverse rutted mountain roads. 
Khenpo Jikphun declined a request for an interview. One of his top lieutenants, Sudaji, said there had never been any serious political problems at Serthar, and pointed out that Khenpo Jikphun has never encouraged monks and nuns to come to Serthar but simply welcomed those who show up. 
Several monks here said that authorities in Beijing have expressed concern about the fast growth of the community at Serthar, apparently worried about the inherent threat posed by any organization they do not fully control. Yet suggestions that some of the new arrivals should be turned away and sent home have apparently been met by a gentle insistence from Khenpo Jikphun that it is not his role to police or discourage the faithful. 
Enthusiastic monks and nuns here point to a rigorous curriculum of Buddhist study that encompasses a large body of texts in diverse genres that include painting, medicine, history and poetry, as well as philosophy. 
Yet they are also inspired by Khenpo Jikphun's personal example of strict celibacy and ethical norms as the best path to spiritual revitalization. Although many Tibetan religious leaders have been seduced by modern comforts, they say, Khenpo Jikphun has consistently criticized moral lapses among others, which has created a number of enemies among other Tibetan religious leaders. 
"If everyone can learn from our teacher, there will be fewer problems in the world," said Tsering Gyaldyup, a monk who has studied here for eight years. "I want to stay here forever, because there is no better place to be." 

Webmaster's note: more about Khenpo Jikphun can be found in the following book: Buddhism in Contemporary Tibet: Religious Revival and Cultural Identity, edited by Melvyn Goldstein and Matthew Kapstein, Univ of California Press, 1998.


A Kham Aid Foundation Report 
by Pamela Logan

October, 1998
Tibetan Buddhism has exerted a magnetic pull in the West, winning many adherents with its teachings of non-attachment to worldly desires. What's less known to the West is that Tibetan Buddhism exerts a similar pull on the spirits and imaginations of many Han Chinese. "My greatest desire is to promote Tibetan culture to the outside world" says 33-year old Zhang Weiming, a traba (student monk) at Dzongsar Monastery. "This culture emphasizes the soul and allows you to forget your suffering."
  Dzongsar Monastery.

Zhang is a slightly built man, warm and articulate, with twinkling eyes and an overwhelming enthusiasm for the life he has adopted here at Dzongsar. "My parents were landlords, one in eastern Sichuan, the other in the north." he says. "During the Cultural Revolution they were exiled to Serdar County [a remote Tibetan region of western Sichuan] where I grew up. I studied science, Christianity, agriculture, and Buddhism. But I realized that if I really wanted to learn [Buddhism] I would have to put myself in this environment." 
Zhang prepared for entry into Dzongsar by studying Tibetan language at Southwest Nationalities Institute in Chengdu. He still finds spoken Tibetan somewhat difficult, but he has no problem reading the sutras that are his daily lot as a student at Dzongsar. He explains with zeal his understanding of Buddhism: "In Christianity, God is all-powerful; Western philosophy emphasizes the external environment. In Buddhism we study the inner environment. Despite the differences between Western and Eastern philosophy, their purpose is the same: we all want to reach a higher level and recognize things we cannot see." 
  Zhang Weiming gives visitors a tour of Dzongsar's herbal medicine factory.
 Dzongsar, located in a remote valley of southern Dege County, is a good choice for a student with unusual qualifications like Zhang, for it has a long history of progressive thinking in the Buddhist world. The monastery was founded 1200 years ago, first as a Bon monastery promulgating Tibet's traditional animist faith, later changed to the Nyingma ("old school") sect, then Kagyu. Five hundred years ago the valley was wrested from the hands of King Gesar's generals and attached to the then-ascendent Dege Kingdom. In 1959 the most important temples were destroyed during a political movement against Liu Xiaoqi, a rare instance of destruction of a Tibetan monastery prior to the Cultural Revolution. 
Now the entirely rebuilt Dzongsar wears the red, gray, and white stripes of the Sakyapas, but it is not really a Sakya sect monastery. 110 years ago three scholars -- Jangyong Khyentze Wangpo, Chuchi Niba, and Kongtrul Rinpoche--came here with idea of uniting the four pre-Gelug Buddhist sects. They produced 150 volumes of writings that today form the basis for instruction at the Dzongsar College of Buddhism, which is located below the monastery and is administratively separate from it. The college is highly selective, and its students, who come from all over Tibet, study for six years after which they take stiff exams. After graduation they generally spend five more years at Dzongsar before fanning out to monasteries all over the plateau. 
Before 1950 there were many Han Chinese students at Dzongsar. "Several hundred years ago there was a decision to combine Chinese and Tibetan philosophy here, but the traffic and communication problems prevented it," says Zhang. The Chinese Buddhist Association has approved a special class for Chinese-speaking students at Dzongsar, but as usual there are not enough funds to support this endeavor, and so the plan languishes. 
Through his relentless and sincere efforts, Zhang is now a part of Dzongsar Gonpa, whose community he always refers to by the pronoun "we." His studies here are supported financially by his family, the manager of the monastery, and a few friends.. "The people here are very kind to me. Before I came here I had a strong desire for things I couldn't get. Now I live my life according to fate."


 
ééé

 
A 'Living Buddha' Plants an Academy
by Seth Faison
Nearly every day, Tibetan monks and nuns wearing blood-red robes arrive at this distant outpost after a long trek through a forbidding range of mountains. Drawn by word that a brilliant teacher resides here, they climb a twisting path up a narrow valley to find a freshly built metropolis of Buddhist worship. It is a stunning sight in an otherwise barren setting and a potent symbol of the revival in Tibetan Buddhism under way here. A vast assembly of log cabins, spartan inside and out, covers a pair of steep hillsides. At dusk, crowds of monks and nuns buzz in conversation, their hair shorn and their gazes serene, as they gather for evening prayers outside a ramshackle collection of meeting halls that are connected by a criss-cross of muddy pathways. 

In just a few years, Serthar has emerged to become one of the largest and most influential centers for the study of Tibetan Buddhism in the world. ...

è continue here
Monitors Say China Pushes Tibet Monks From Study Site by Erik Eckholm
see as well our page è Aktuelle Nachrichten/ news

 
 
Bei weiteren Fragen zu anderen Themenbereichen des komplexen Tibetischen Buddhismus helfen Ihnen eventuell die folgenden Seiten weiter:
è Einführung in den tibetischen Buddhismus: Vom kleinen zum diamantenen Fahrzeug
è Geschichte (in Vorbereitung) 
è Politik und jüngere Geschichte (in Vorbereitung)
è Spezialthemen
è Tibet im 20. Jahrhundert
è Tibetischer Buddhismus

 

HELP

Glossary for Mahayana and Tibetan Buddhism

Compiled by Geoffrey Samuel

This glossary was intended as an introductory reference for 2nd year undergraduate students taking a course on Tibetan Buddhism in the Department of Religious Studies at Lancaster University in 1996.
For reference to the glossary èclick here.


 
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